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Python在Linux上获取网卡IP地址

通过Python自带的socket包提取本机IP地址的代码,在Windows上正常,但在Linux上得到的是127.0.1.1。可以通过netifaces包等方法解决。

Python在Linux上获取网卡IP地址

1 问题描述

通过Python自带的socket包提取本机IP地址的代码,如下:

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import socket
socket.gethostbyname(socket.gethostname())

这段代码在Windows上正常,但在Linux上得到的是127.0.1.1

2 解决方法

我通过netifaces包解决该问题:

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os_platform = platform.platform().lower()
if 'windows' in os_platform:
# get host ip
self.ip = socket.gethostbyname(self.hostname)
elif 'linux' in os_platform:
try:
if_addresses = ni.ifaddresses('eth0')
except ValueError:
if_addresses = ni.ifaddresses('eno1')
self.ip = if_addresses[ni.AF_INET][0]['addr']
  • 可以通过import platform来调取当前系统版本;
  • 大多数Linux机器外网IP的网卡都是eth0,此处eno1是根据遇到的特例加上的处理。(最好通过弄配置文件解决哈,这样多少有点hard code了)

3 参考资料

How can I get the IP address from NIC in Python? - StackOverflow

Answer: https://stackoverflow.com/a/24196955

Two methods:

Method #1 (use external package)

You need to ask for the IP address that is bound to your eth0 interface. This is available from the netifaces package

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> import netifaces as ni
> ni.ifaddresses('eth0')
> ip = ni.ifaddresses('eth0')[ni.AF_INET][0]['addr']
> print ip # should print "192.168.100.37"
>

>

You can also get a list of all available interfaces via

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> ni.interfaces()
>

>

Method #2 (no external package)

Here’s a way to get the IP address without using a python package:

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> import socket
> import fcntl
> import struct
>
> def get_ip_address(ifname):
> s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM)
> return socket.inet_ntoa(fcntl.ioctl(
> s.fileno(),
> 0x8915, # SIOCGIFADDR
> struct.pack('256s', ifname[:15])
> )[20:24])
>
> get_ip_address('eth0') # '192.168.0.110'
>

>

Note: detecting the IP address to determine what environment you are using is quite a hack. Almost all frameworks provide a very simple way to set/modify an environment variable to indicate the current environment. Try and take a look at your documentation for this. It should be as simple as doing

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> if app.config['ENV'] == 'production':
> #send production email
> else:
> #send development email
>

>

支持我的写作!